The data listed is provided gratis and is offered as a guide only. It is not intended to be used as the sole basis of design or to establish specification limits. Process Technology assumes no obligation or liablility for any advice furnished by it or for results obtained from use.

Due to the complexities of solutions and applications customers must contact their chemical supplier for heater material compatibility and recommendations.

Anticipated sludge levels are indicated in the notes below if they exceed 1".

For Electric Heater Solution guide, click here.

Chemistry Steel 316 Stainless Titanium Zirconium Fluoropolymer Bath Efficiency Specific Weight Specific Heat Notes
Acetic Acid 0.48 8.43 No chlorides for metals
Acetic Anhydride ≤ 200F for metals
Acid Sulfate
Actane 70, 80 PTFE Only
Actane Salt PTFE Only
Alkaline Cleaners (Electrified)
Alkaline Soaking Cleaners
Alodine (Most formulas)
Aluminum Acetate
Aluminum Anodizing
Aluminum Bright Dip
Aluminum Chloride ≤5 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Aluminum Cleaners Derated heater required
Aluminum Sulfate ≤ 50% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonia 1.1 7.56
Ammonium Acetate ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Bifluoride
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Nitrate ≤ 50% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Persulfate ≤ 5 % concentration for the metals
Ammonium Sulfate ≤ 40% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Amyl Acetate ≤ 200F for metals
Aniline 0.51 8.53 ≤ 200F for metals
Anodizing (Aluminum) ≤ 200F for metals
ARP 28, 80
Barium Chloride
Beer ≤ 200F for metals
Benzoic Acid ≤70% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Black Nickel 75 Derated heater required
Black Oxide (Hi -Temp) Derated heater required
Black Oxide (Low -Temp)
Bonderizing Derated heater required
Boric Acid Derated heater required
Brass Cyanide 50
Bright Nickel 50
Bright Copper Cyanide
Brown Oxide
Butyric Acid 0.51 8.05
Cadmium Black
Cadmium (Alkaline) 50
Cadmium Fluoborate 50
Calcium Chloride
Calcium Hydroxide ≤ 20% concentration for metals
Calcium Hypochlorite
Carbonic Acid
Caustic Etch Derated heater required
Caustics (>20% concentration) Derated heater required
Chlorosulfuric Acid
Chromic Acid ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Chromic Anodizing
Chromic Acetate
Chromic Nickel
Chromium (No Fluorides)
Chromium (Fluorides)
Citric Acid
Clear Chromate
Cobalt Nickel 50
Cobalt Plating 50 Sludge 3"
Cobra Etch
Copper Acid 50 0.9 9.69
Copper Bright Acid 75 0.9 9.69
Copper Cyanide 75
Copper Fluoborate 75
Copper Pyrophosphate 75
Copper Strike 75
Copper Sulfate 75 ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Deionized water
Deoxidizer (Etching)
Deoxidizer (Non-Chromated)
Dichromic Seal
Diethylene Glycol
Diversey 511, 514
Dow Therm Derated heater required
Dye Solutions
Ebonal C
Electroless Copper Derated heater required
Electroless Nickel Derated heater required
Electroless Tin (Acid) Sludge 3"
Electroless Tin (Alkaline) Sludge 3"
ElectroCleaner Sludge 3"
Electropolishing Sludge 3"
Ethone 80 Acid
Ethylene Glycol 0.58 9.27 Derated heater required
Ferric Ammonium Oxide
Ferric Chloride
Ferric Nitrate
Ferric Sulfate
Formic Acid 0.53 9.35 ≤5 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Fuel Oil
Fruit Juices
Glycerine (Glycerol) Derated heater required
Gold Cyanide
Grey Nickel 50
Hot Seal Dichromate
Hydrochloric Acid ≤ 30%, ≤ 160F for metals
Hydrofluoric Acid ≤ 50%, ≤ 120F for metals
Hydrogen Peroxide Derated heater required
Immersion Gold
Iridite (4-75, 4-73, 14, 14-2, 14-9)
Iridite (1, 2, 3, 4-C, 7, 8, 15)
Iron Fluoborate 50
Iron Phosphate Derated heater required
Isoprep (186, 187, 188)
Isoprep Acid Salts
Lead Acetate
Lime Saturated Water (Alkaline) Derated heater required
Linseed Oil 0.44 7.76
Lactic Acid ≤50 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Lye (caustic) ≤30% concentration aqueous solutions and ≤200F for metals
Magnesium Hydroxide Derated heater required
Magnesium Nitrate
Manganese Phosphate Derated heater required
Manganese Chloride 10-50% aquesous solution for metals
McDermid 629 (contains F)
Mercuric Chloride
Methane Sulfonic Acid
Muriatic Acid
Naptha ≤200F for metals; 100% concentration
Nickel (Plating Solution) (Watts)
Nickel Acetate Seal
Nickel Chloride 50
Nitric Acid ≤ 50% concentration for metals
Nitric Hydrochloric Acids
Nitric Phosphoric Derated heater required
Oils Derated heater required
Oleic Acid ≤ 10% concentration for metals
Oxalic Acid ≤ 10% concentration for metals
Paint Stripper (Alkaline) Derated heater required
Parrafin Molten
Perchlorethylene Derated heater required
Phenolic Resins
Phosphate Cleaner Derated heater required
Phosphate Derated heater required
Phosphoric Acid (No Fluoride) Derated heater required
Potassium Acid Sulfate
Potassium Cyanide
Potassium Hydroxide ≤25% concentration for Zirconium
Potassium Hydrochloric
Potassium Nitrate ≤5% concentration for metals
Potassium Permanganate Derated heater required
Rochelle Salt Cyanide
Salt (Actine)
Sea Water 0.94 8.6
Silver Bromide
Silver Cyanide
Silver Lume
Sodium Bisulfate
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Cyaninde
Sodium Dichromate (Hot Seal)
Sodium Hydroxide 0.84 11.11 ≤40% concentration and ≤150F for metals, Sludge 3"
Sodium Hypochlorite ≤ 120F for metals
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Persulfate
Stannic Chloride ≤5% concentration and room temperature for metals
Stearic Acid ≤ 200F for metals
Sulfamate Nickel 25
Sulfur Peroxide
Sulfuric Acid 0.84 9.6
Sulphamic Acid
Tin Nickel 50
Tin Plating (Acid) (Stanus/Sulphate)
Tin Plating Acid (Fluborate)
Tin Plating (Alkaline) 50
Trichloroethylene 0.23 12.27 Derated heater required
Trioxide (Pickle)
Turco (4181, 4338) Derated heater required
Wood's Nickel Strike 50 Sludge 3"
Yellow Dichromate
Zinc Acid
Zinc Ammonium Chloride
Zinc Chloride 50 ≤ 5% for metals
Zinc Cyanide 50
Zinc Phosphate Derated heater required, Sludge 3"
Zinc Phosphate (Fluoride)
Zinc Sulfate 50